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Examines the effects of the Peloponnesian War on the arts of Athens and the historical and artistic contexts in which this art was produced. During this period, battle scenes dominated much of the monumental art, while large numbers of memorials to the war dead were erected. The temple of Athena Nike, built to celebrate Athenian victories in the first part of the war, carries a rich sculptural program illustrating military victories. For the first time, the arts in Athens expressed an interest in the afterlife, with many sculptured dedications to Demeter and Kore, who promised initiates special privileges in the underworld. After the Sicilian disaster, a retrospective tendency can be noted in both art and politics, which provided reassurance in a time of crisis. This is the first book to focus on the new themes and new kinds of art introduced in Athens as a result of the thirty-year war.