The case-control approach is a powerful method for investigating factors that may explain a particular event. It is extensively used in epidemiology to study disease incidence, one of the best-known examples being Bradford Hill and Doll's investigation of the possible connection between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. More recently, case-control studies have been increasingly used in other fields, including sociology and econometrics. With a particular focus on statistical analysis, this book is ideal for applied and theoretical statisticians wanting an up-to-date introduction to the field. It covers the fundamentals of case-control study design and analysis as well as more recent developments, including two-stage studies, case-only studies and methods for case-control sampling in time. The latter have important applications in large prospective cohorts which require case-control sampling designs to make efficient use of resources. More theoretical background is provided in an appendix for those new to the field.