The importance of conservation is growing each year, with increasing concerns over the destruction of biodiversity and the rising awareness of ecosystem services generating new debates on the human-nature relationship. This compact overview integrates the process, theory and practice of conservation for a broad readership, from non-specialists to students and practitioners. Taking a global perspective, it uses examples from around the world to illustrate general themes and show how problems arise from the impact of societal trends on ecological communities. A significant practical component will be particularly valuable for environmental professionals, outlining the requirements for rigorous surveys, biodiversity valuation, the assessment of impact and its mitigation. Thoroughly revised and updated, this second edition reflects trends towards embracing multiple disciplines, considering the links between ecology and the social sciences and bringing conservation to the heart of sustainability and environmental policy.