Designing Case Studies explores three different ways of conducting causal analysis in case studies: co-variational analysis, causal-process tracing, and congruence analysis. It is an inclusive account of case study methodology which covers all the major explanatory approaches, and is also the first book to present congruence analysis in detail as a distinct case study approach. Differentiating the three approaches to case study research allows the authors to present each as a coherent and consistent way of drawing causal inferences by studying one or a few cases in-depth. The authors highlight the core features of each approach and provide helpful advice for each step of the research process, including: formulating research questions and goals, selecting theories and cases, data generation, and data analysis. They also show how to draw conclusions beyond the cases under investigation and show how case studies can fruitfully be combined with statistical analysis and Qualitative Comparative Analysis.