Diffusion MRI remains the most comprehensive reference for understanding this rapidly evolving and powerful technology and is an essential handbook for designing, analyzing, and interpreting diffusion MR experiments. Diffusion imaging provides a unique window on human brain anatomy. This non-invasive technique continues to grow in popularity as a way to study brain pathways that could never before be investigated in vivo. This book covers the fundamental theory of diffusion imaging, discusses its most promising applications to basic and clinical neuroscience, and introduces cutting-edge methodological developments that will shape the field in coming years. Written by leading experts in the field, it places the exciting new results emerging from diffusion imaging in the context of classical anatomical techniques to show where diffusion studies might offer unique insights and where potential limitations lie. It is fully revised and updated edition of the first comprehensive reference on a powerful technique in brain imaging. It covers all aspects of a diffusion MRI study from acquisition through analysis to interpretation, and from fundamental theory to cutting-edge developments. It features new chapters covering connectomics, advanced diffusion acquisition, artifact removal, and applications to the neonatal brain. It provides practical advice on running an experiment. It includes discussion of applications in psychiatry, neurology, neurosurgery, and basic neuroscience. It features full color throughout.