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Education and the State in Modern Peru illuminates how education was the site of ideological and political struggle in Peru during its early years as an independent state. Spanning 100 years and discussing both urban and rural education, it shows how school funding, curricula, and governance became part of the cultural process of state-building in Peru. Drawing on detailed historical research and data, G. Antonio Espinoza analyzes the factors that affected the development of primary schooling in the capital city of Lima and the surrounding provinces between 1821 and 1921. He focuses not only on state intervention, but also on key societal elements that affected the development of education during this century, including social demand for education, prevailing educational ideas, cultural change, and patronage.