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The new and updated edition of this accessible text provides a comprehensive overview of the comparative physiology of animals within an environmental context. It includes two brand new chapters on Nerves and Muscles and the Endocrine System. It discusses both comparative systems physiology and environmental physiology. It analyses and integrates problems and adaptations for each kind of environment: marine, seashore and estuary, freshwater, terrestrial and parasitic. It examines mechanisms and responses beyond physiology. It applies an evolutionary perspective to the analysis of environmental adaptation.This title provides modern molecular biology insights into the mechanistic basis of adaptation, and takes the level of analysis beyond the cell to the membrane, enzyme and gene. It incorporates more varied material from a wide range of animal types, with less of a focus purely on terrestrial reptiles, birds and mammals and rather more about the spectacularly successful strategies of invertebrates.