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The purpose of risk assessment is to support science-based decisions about how to solve complex societal problems. The problems we face in the twenty-first century have many social, political, and technical complexities. Environmental risk assessment in particular is of increasing importance as a means of seeking to address the potential effects of chemicals in the environment in both the developed and developing world. Environmental Risk Assessment: A Toxicological Approach examines various aspects of problem formulation, exposure, toxicity, and risk characterization that apply to both human health and ecological risk assessment. The book is aimed at the next generation of risk assessors and students who need to know more about developing, conducting, and interpreting risk assessments. It delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk. Written in an engaging and lively style by a highly experienced risk assessment practitioner, the text: Introduces the science of risk assessment-past, present, and future Covers problem formation and the development of exposure factors Explains how human epidemiology and animal testing data are used to determine toxicity criteria Provides environmental sampling data for conducting practice risk assessments Examines the use of in vitro and 'omics methods for toxicity testing Describes the political and social aspects of science-based decisions in the twenty-first century Includes fully worked examples, case studies, discussion questions, and links to legislative hearings Readers of this volume will not only learn how to execute site-specific human health and ecological risk assessments but also gain a greater understanding of how science is used in deciding environmental regulations.