The health of human populations around the world is constantly changing and the health profiles of most nations in the early twenty-first century global health landscape are unrecognizable compared with those of just a century ago. This book examines and explains these health changes and considers likely future patterns and changes. While the overall picture charted is one of progress and improvement, certain unfortunate regressions and stubbornly persistent health inequalities are equally shown to be part of the evolving patterns of global health. The chapters of the book are organized in three major parts: The first part introduces readers to the principal concepts of global health, and to the idea of populations having distinctive health profiles. In particular, it explores how those profiles can be measured, and how they change, using the umbrella concepts and theories of epidemiological and health transition. Building on the first section, the second part focuses on the evolution of health states, as well as paying particular attention to the reasons for the many subnational inequalities in global health. It also examines health challenges such as the continuing infectious disease burden and current emerging 'epidemics'. The final part transports readers from the current health scene to future possible and probable health scenarios, acknowledging the challenges presented by global environmental change, as well as issues centred around geopolitics and human security. Using clear and original explanations of complex issues, this text makes extensive use of boxed case studies and international examples, with thought-provoking discussion questions posed for readers at the end of each chapter. Global Health is essential reading for students of global health, public health and development studies.