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This book provides a detailed account of quantum theory with a much greater emphasis on the Heisenberg equations of motion and the matrix method. No other texts have come close to discuss quantum theory in terms of depth of coverage. The book features a deeper treatment of the fundamental concepts such as the rules of constructing quantum mechanical operators and the classical-quantal correspondence; the exact and approximate methods based on the Heisenberg equations; the determinantal approach to the scattering theory and the LSZ reduction formalism where the latter method is used to obtain the transition matrix. The uncertainty relations for a number of different observables are derived and discussed. A comprehensive chapter on the quantization of systems with nonlocalized interaction is included. Exact solvable models, and approximate techniques for solution of realistic many-body problems are also considered. The book takes a unified look in the final chapter, examining the question of measurement in quantum theory, with an introduction to the Bell's inequalities.