To some, Islamic Fundamentalism means the restoration of a true religion. To others, it is a politics that stands apart from capitalism and socialism. To many Westerners, it has come to constitute a threat to established order and international security. Holy Wars, first published in 1989, comprises a non-partisan narrative that takes account of both the socio-cultural values expressed in Fundamentalism, and its political consequences. Dilip Hiro's starting point is that fundamentalist forces have been active within Islam since the death of the Prophet Muhammad. He presents the two major sects, Sunnis and Shias, in this light. Hiro provides the background for an understanding of what was taking place in Middle Eastern countries such as Afghanistan, Libya, Egypt and Syria at the end of the 1980s. This is a comprehensive and readable work, of great relevance and value to those with an interest in Middle Eastern politics and history, and the growth of Islamic Fundamentalism.