Afghanistan expert Seth G. Jones watched as American optimism evaporated after the Taliban defeat in 2001; by 2005, a new "war of a thousand cuts" had brought Afghanistan to its knees. With new research on insurgencies and declassified US government documents, Jones shows how the siphoning of resources to Iraq left NATO forces in Afghanistan ineffectual and without support. Through interviews with prominent figures, including ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad and commander Karl Eikenberry, Jones explains how a growing sanctuary for insurgents in Pakistan and a collapsing government in Kabul were a catalyst for the Taliban resurgence. Examining what has and has not worked so far, Jones argues that the US must take a radically new approach to the war if it is to avoid the disastrous fate that has befallen every world power to enter the region. With a new afterword.