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This is the second of a two-volume collection of studies on inconsistencies in Greek and Roman religion. Their common aim is to argue for the historical relevance of various types of ambiguity and dissonance. While the first volume focused on the central paradoxes on ancient henotheism, this second one discusses the ambiguities in myth and ritual of transition and reversal. Following an introduction into the history of the myth and ritual debate (with a focus on New Year festivals and initiation), the book discusses myth and ritual of reversal (Knossos and the Kronia, and Saturnus and the Saturnalia); two women festivals - Bona Dea and the Thesmophoria; and the initiatory aspects of Apollo and Mars. In the background is the basic conviction that the three approaches to religion known as "substantivistic", functionalist and cultural-symbolic respectively, need to be mutually exclusive.