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When researchers want to study indigenous populations they are dependent upon the highly variable way in which states or territories enumerate, categorise and differentiate indigenous people. In this volume, anthropologists, historians, demographers and sociologists have come together for the first time to examine the historical and contemporary construct of indigenous people in a number of fascinating geographical contexts around the world, including Canada, the United States, Colombia, Russia, Scandinavia, the Balkans and Australia. Using historical and demographical evidence, the contributors explore the creation and validity of categories for enumerating indigenous populations, the use and misuse of ethnic markers, micro-demographic investigations, and demographic databases, and thereby show how the situation varies substantially between countries. Per Axelsson is a Senior Researcher of the Centre for Sami Research at Umea University, Sweden. His research interests and recent publications focus on indigenous demography, the medical history and historical demography of the Sami and the settlers in northern Sweden during the time of colonization and also the history of polio during the twentieth century. He co-chairs the network of Family/Demography within the European Social Science History Association. Peter Skold is Professor of History at Umea University and Director of the Centre for Sami Research. He is presently working on two major projects concerning the Sami demographic transition and the ageing population. He also directs the Northern Studies program at Umea University. Recent publications focus on health issues and vulnerability among indigenous peoples (Annales de Demographie Historique and Journal of Circumpolar Health).