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Interventional radiology is an exciting feld, and interventional radiologists perform a huge variety of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Most interventional diagnostic procedures have been superseded by noninvasive methods, and the role of interventional radiologists has changed accordingly. Whereas traditionally interventional radiology involved diagnosis and a few therapeutic measures, nowadays it involves mostly interv- tional procedures planned using noninvasive diagnostic methods. Interventional radiologists have to keep up with advances in noninvasive imaging te- niques like conventional sonography, Doppler sonography, magnetic resonance imaging, MR angiography, cardiac MRI, multidetector CT, and CT angiography for treatment planning. On the other hand, the number and variety of treatments that interventional radiologists perform continues to grow, supplanting or complementing other techniques traditionally performed by surgeons. This teaching fle aims to review our exciting feld. We emphasize the two fundamental aspects that enable us to provide creative, agile solutions to our patients' problems: diagnosis and treatment. Cordoba, March 2010 Ramon Ribes Malaga, March 2010 Jose J. Munoz Contents 1 Fundamentals of Diagnostic Angiography Ivan Artero, Jose Rodriguez, and Jose J. Munoz ...1 Case 1.1 Catheters, Guides, and Introducer Sheaths ...2 Case 1.2 Seldinger Technique. Retrograde and Antegrade Approach Through the Femoral Artery ...4 Case 1.3 Brachial Arterial Access with a Micropuncture System ...6 Case 1.4 Hemostasis Systems. Femoral Artery Closure with Angio-Seal Vascular Closure Device ...8 Case 1.5 Complications of Vascular Access.