Manchester is a city and metropolitan boroughin England with a population of roughly 510,700. It lies within the United Kingdom's second most populous urban area, which has a population of 2.55 million. Manchester is located in the south-central part of North West England, fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south and the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium, which was established in c. 79 CE on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. Throughout the Middle Ages, Manchester remained a manorial township but began to expand at an astonishing rate around the turn of the 19th century. This title chronicles that expansion during the century that made Manchester the city it is today.