Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems (BOK)
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Soluble and insoluble impurities present in water used for domestic and industrial applications can lead to the deposition of unwanted materials on equipment surfaces. Impurities such as dissolved minerals, natural organic compounds, and suspended particles can impact various processes and systems including boiling and cooling processes, desalination, geothermal power generation, milk pasteurization, oil and gas refining, the pulp and paper industry, and biological systems. Understanding the mechanisms of scale inhibition and dispersion is important in addressing the resulting challenges. Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems presents developments in mineral scale formation and control in a variety of industrial and biological systems, providing in-depth discussions on topics important to academic researchers and industrial technologists. With contributions from experts in their respective fields, this book comprises 22 chapters in 5 parts. It begins by addressing precipitation and inhibition of various scale-forming salts-such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium fluoride, and calcium phosphate-in various industrial systems, including boilers, cooling, and high-pressure and high-temperature applications. Part II describes the precipitation and inhibition of salts encountered in sugar refining and geothermal power generation. Part III describes mineral scales that are important in biological systems. Part IV deals with the control of suspended matter in industrial water systems. Part V examines analytical techniques commonly used to characterize mineral scales and deposits during in-house evaluation of new products and deposit samples received for characterization from industrial installations, as well as product failure analyses. Covering the broad scope of mineral scales, this book both reviews current concepts and presents new information, with detailed discussions on fundamental and mechanistic aspects of mineral scale formation and inhibition.