"Modern Times" (1936) was Charlie Chaplin's last full-length silent film, and also his last appearance as the Tramp, probably the most recognizable figure in film history. Social and political concerns had often featured in Chaplin's films, but in "Modern Times" they culminate in a protest against conditions during the Great Depression. Joan Mellen situates "Modern Times" within the context of Chaplin's life and his work, exploring its history and influences as well as its ongoing appeal. She explores how the film's themes of oppression, industrialization and dehumanization are embodied in the little tramp's struggle to survive in the modern world. Joan Mellen dedicates the final chapter of the book to the fascinating details of the FBI's file on Chaplin, which was opened in 1922 and maintained until long after his death.