For the last two centuries, the nation state has posed a formidable challenge to multinational empires. It has served as a base for modernisation, secularisation and democratisation -- and also for the formation of totalitarian regimes. Today, the nation state faces challenges from multiple directions. National minorities demand self-determination while religious forces challenge secular governments, and global migration movements destroy the cultural uniformity once considered essential for the formation and preservation of nation states. The Nation State and Religion: The Resurgence of Faith is the second of a three-volume set which addresses key challenges facing the contemporary nation state from a global perspective but with special emphasis on the Middle East and Israel. Publication reflects research conducted under the auspices of The Israel Democracy Institutes Nation State Project, which analyses Israels complex reality in which a Jewish majority contends with an Arab minority, ultra-Orthodox religious forces reject the authority of the nation state, and an immigrant society exhibits substantial cultural and ethnic variance. Volume II examines the role of religion in the nation state and the tension between nationality and religion as it is expressed today in society, politics, law and culture. The book offers a broad-based and in-depth comparative look at this issue in relation to different religions (Christianity, Islam and Judaism) and relative to varied nation states (the United States, France, Canada, Pakistan, Turkey, Syria, and the Palestinian Authority). Special emphasis is given to the Jewish nation state of Israel, where there is an ongoing struggle about the role of religion in the public sphere.