Neanderthals Among Mammoths: Excavations at Lynford Quarry, Norfolk (BOK)
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In spring 2002 mammoth bones and associated Mousterian stone tools were found in situ at Lynford Quarry, near Munford village, Norfolk, UK. A detailed archaeological excavation was undertaken which recovered exceptionally well-preserved Palaeolithic and palaeoenvironmental information. More than 1000 mammoth cones representing at least 11 individuals were excavated along with other fauna and more the 2500 stone artefacts. The association of woolly mammoth bones with Middle Palaeolithic bifaces, including disntinctive bout coupe handaxes, and the wealth of palaeoecological data - mammal remains, beetles, pollen and mollusca - make Lynford the most important British site for studying when and how Neanderthals occupied the cold, open environments of what 60,000 years ago was a peninsula of north-west Europe. These data provide a unique opportunity to investigate questions of Neanderthal hunting strategies and patterns of land use and to draw wider conclusions about their social structure in a demanding region of Ice Age Europe.