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From birth, human beings are striving to make sense of the world. They learn through interaction, modelling first hand experience and independent action. Most children arrive at school with the notion that being independent and having the desire to take responsibility has been seen, in their homes, as a good thing. However, what often happens is that responsibility may be denied them in school and further bids for independence are viewed as negative behaviour. This book argues that independence in the classroom should be seen as beneficial for learners and also for teachers. Jill Williams makes a compelling case for a climate in which decision making is valued, where children are enabled to solve problems and where children and adults respect each others point of view, arguing that this will be a climate in which independence flourishes. In turn the benefits in terms of teaching and learning will be apparent for both the children and the teachers. The notion of independence in the classroom is explored through vivid cameos showing positive relationships between teachers and learners, inspirational classroom organization and management and examples of children taking their learning forward in an environment where they have choices. The careful monitoring, assessment and discussion of teaching and learning which is presented highlights the benefits for both learners and teachers when there is a focus on independence.