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The control of individual quantum systems promises a new technology for the 21st century - quantum technology. This book is the first comprehensive treatment of modern quantum measurement and measurement-based quantum control, which are vital elements for realizing quantum technology. Readers are introduced to key experiments and technologies through dozens of recent experiments in cavity QED, quantum optics, mesoscopic electronics, and trapped particles several of which are analysed in detail. Nearly 300 exercises help build understanding, and prepare readers for research in these exciting areas. This important book will interest graduate students and researchers in quantum information, quantum metrology, quantum control and related fields. Novel topics covered include adaptive measurement; realistic detector models; mesoscopic current detection; Markovian, state-based and optimal feedback; and applications to quantum information processing.