Theological anthropology is being put to the test: in the face of contemporary developments in the spheres of culture, politics and science, traditional perspectives on the human person are no longer adequate. Yet can theological anthropology move beyond its previously established categories and certainties and renew itself in relation to the contemporary insights which challenge these? The present collection of essays sets out to answer this question. Uniting Roman Catholic theologians from across the globe, it tackles the challenges related to the classical natural law tradition (part 1), to the modern conception of the subject (part 2), and to the postmodern awareness of diversity in a globalizing context (part 3) from a theological perspective. Its contributors share a fundamental methodological option for a critical-constructive dialogue with contemporary culture, science and philosophy. This collection integrates a wider range of approaches than one usually finds in theological collections. The present volume brings together experts in systematic theology and in theological ethics- two disciplines, which often seem to think and write in parallel academic universes. Authors come from different American (including Black and Latino) and European (including French and German) theological contexts. Moreover, the interdisciplinary insights, upon which the different contributions draw, stem from both the natural sciences (neuroscience, evolutionary biology, ethology, ...) and the humanities (cultural studies, philosophy, hermeneutics, ...). This volume is essential reading for anyone seeking a state of the art account of theological anthropology, of the uncertainties it is facing and of the responses it is in the process of formulating. The shared Roman Catholic background of the authors of this collection make this volume a helpful complement to recent publications that represent predominantly views from other theological traditions.