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In 1930, Chicago's Field Museum of Natural History commissioned sculptor Malvina Hoffman to produce three-dimensional models of racial types for an anthropology display called the Races of Mankind. In this exceptional study, Marianne Kinkel measures the colossal impact of the ninety-one bronze and stone sculptures on perceptions of race in twentieth-century visual culture, tracing their exhibition from their 1933 debut and nearly four decades at the Field Museum to numerous re-uses, re-packagings, reproductions, and publications that reached across the world. In addition to the historical account of the sculptures' commissioning and exhibition, the volume also discusses photographic reproductions in maps, atlases, and encyclopaedias, the dismantling of the exhibit, and the redeployment of some of the sculptures in new educational settings. Kinkel demonstrates how the Races of Mankind sculptures participated in various racial paradigms by asserting fixed racial types and racial hierarchies in the 1930s, promoting the notion of a Brotherhood of Man in the 1940s, and engaging Afro-centric discourses of identity in the 1970s.