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This book provides a self-contained, accessible introduction to the mathematical advances and challenges resulting from the use of semidefinite programming in polynomial optimization. This important and highly applicable research area, with contributions from convex geometry, algebraic geometry and optimization, is known as convex algebraic geometry. Each chapter addresses a fundamental aspect of the topic, beginning with an introduction to nonnegative polynomials and sums of squares, and their connections to semidefinite programming. The material quickly advances to areas at the forefront of current research, including semidefinite representability of convex sets, duality theory in algebraic geometry, and nontraditional topics such as sums of squares of complex forms. The book is a suitable entry point to the subject for readers at the graduate level or above in mathematics, engineering or computer science. Instructors will find the book appropriate for a class or seminar, and researchers will encounter open problems and new research directions.