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Accurate clinical observations are key to good patient care and fundamental to clinical practice. A thorough understanding of the biological science underlying vital observations - such as taking the temperature or measuring the pulse - enables health professionals to make well-informed clinical decisions quickly and accurately. To be fully competent in these basic skills, there is a need to understand not only how and why procedures are performed, but also how results are affected, for example by variation in technique or the health status of the patient. This new edition integrates clear explanations of the techniques involved in these procedures with the biological knowledge which gives them meaning. For each topic, William T. Blows explains the pathological basis for variations in observed results, focusing on relevant anatomy and physiology, genetics and pharmacology and the basic principles of care. This helpful text gives health practitioners at all levels the understanding needed to: Perform clinical observations accurately Make accurate judgements about the patient's condition Make accurate decisions concerning patient care. In addition to all-new chapters on observations of nutrition; fluid balance and hydration; drug side effects and interactions; skin and pain, the text looks at: Temperature Cardiovascular observations Respiratory observations Urinary and bowel observations Neurological observations The Biological Basis of Clinical Observations is a unique text which integrates explanations of essential procedures with the biological knowledge that underpins practice. It is essential reading for all students preparing for clinical practice.