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Jeremy Bentham coined the term 'utilitarian' in 1781, but the idea of 'utility' as a value, goal or principle in political, moral or economic life has a long and rich history. The Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Utilitarianism captures the complex developmental history and the multi-faceted character of utilitarianism in its various contexts and forms more completely than any previous source. Studies of utilitarianism hitherto have been notably compartmentalised, focusing on utilitarian ethics, or the socio-political utilitarianism epitomized in Benthamism, or the genesis of Austrian jurisprudence, but never making these various aspects available for comparative study within a single work. The Encyclopedia includes entries on the authors and texts that are recognised as having built the tradition of utilitarian thinking, as well as on the issues and critics that have arisen at every stage of the development of that tradition. Academics and researchers in search of fresh juxtapositions of issues and arguments will welcome this unique reference work.