This accessible scholarly work traces the regional politics of the Shia in the Eastern Province of Sunni-dominated Saudi Arabia since the nineteenth century. The first comprehensive book in English on the topic, it casts new light on the survival strategies and political mobilization of the Shia community as it confronts the repressive machinery of the Saudi regime. The spectrum of Shia opposition groups range from Communists, since the 1950s, to Khomeinists after the Iranian revolution, some of whom use violence against the Saudi state. While most Saudi Shia opposition activists ceased their activities after the agreement with King Fahd in 1993, the uprisings since 2011 have reinvigorated tensions between the Shia and the state. The Eastern Province is home to Saudi Arabia's oil and is therefore of immense geopolitical importance, featured in all assessments of Gulf security, national stability, oil markets and Saudi-Iranian relations.