This book offers key background reading for anyone interested in Scotland's 2014 referendum on independence. This book traces the background to the Treaty of Union of 1707, explains why it happened and assesses its impact on Scottish society, including the bitter struggle with the Jacobites for acceptance of the union in the two decades that followed its inauguration. The first edition was radical in reinterpreting the causes of union, rejecting the widely held notion that the Scots were bought and sold for English gold and instead placing emphasis on the international, dynastic and religious contexts of the union negotiations. This new edition brings the historical debate up to a vigorous present, in which we are once again discussing such issues and opinions, lending historical weight to arguments for and against Union. It is updated in the light of new research. It challenges dominant view that the Scots were 'bought and sold for English gold'. It includes a new chapter that expands the debate into the present. It adds historical dimension to the current debate about the Union. It presents key background reading for anyone interested in 2014 referendum.