Theories of Ethics offers a comprehensive survey of the major schools and figures in moral philosophy, from Socrates to the present day. Written entirely in non-technical language, it aims to be introductory without being elementary, so that readers may quickly engage with selected readings from classic sources. The writings of major philosophers are explained in a structured exploration of recurrently important issues about right and wrong, good and evil, social relations and religious meaning. This book is a radical revision of Gordon Graham's Eight Theories of Ethics (Routledge 2004). A hallmark of the new edition is the incorporation of primary readings into the text itself, making the book suitable as a stand-alone publication for any ethics course or for anyone wanting to know the history and arguments or moral philosophy. Primary sources include extracts from Aristotle, Camus, Hume, Kant, Locke, Mill, Nietzsche, Plato, Reid, and Sartre, as well as Aldo Leopold and James Lovelock. The new edition also offers extended treatment of the objective/subjective debate, social contract theory, Nietzsche on morality, recent interpretations of Kant, the relation between morality and the existence of God, and a full chapter on environmental ethics.