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There is an increasing need for medical thoracoscopy performed by pulmonologists, which may be video assisted and has the advantage of being very cost-effective. This book is a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to thoracoscopy for pulmonologists that documents the considerable progress in endoscopic telescopes and instrumentation. Clear practical guidance is provided on technique, and diagnostic, therapeutic, and interventional applications of thoracoscopy are all carefully examined with the aid of high-quality illustrations. Although medical thoracoscopy is much less invasive than thoracotomy, complications can occur in a small number of cases; these are discussed and advice on prevention is provided. The concluding section examines the future of the field, covering developments such as 'mini' thoracoscopy, autofluorescence thoracoscopy, and flexi-rigid thoracoscopy.