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Punishment is a complex human institution. It has normative, political, social, psychological, and legal dimensions, and ways of thinking about each of them change over time. For this reader on punishment, Michael Tonry, a leading authority in the field, has composed a comprehensive collection of 28 essays ranging from classic and contemporary writings on normative theories by philosophers and penal theorists to writings on restorative justice, on how people think about punishment, and on social theories about the functions punishment performs in human societies. This volume includes an accessible, non-technical introduction on the development of punishment theory, as well as an introduction and annotated bibliography for each section. The readings cover foundational traditions of punishment theory such as consequentialism, retributivism, and functionalism, new approaches like restorative, communitarian, and therapeutic justice, as well as mixed approaches that attempt to link theory and policy. It follows the evolution and development of thinking about punishment spanning from writings by classical theorists such as Kant and Hegel to recent developments in the behavioral and medical sciences for thinking about punishment. The result is a collection of empirically-informed efforts to explain what punishment does that should spark contemplation and debate about why and how punishment is carried out.